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Area, 13,812 km²

Population, 622,359 h (2018)

Density, 45.1 h / km²

Capital, Podgorica.

Languages: Montenegrin and Serbo-Croatian (official), Albanian.

Ethnic composition: Montenegrins 45%, Serbs 28.7%, Bosnians 8.6%, Albanians 4.9%,

Croats 1%, Gypsies 1%, other groups (Macedonians, Slovenes) 10.8% (2011 est.).

Religions: Orthodox 72.1%, Catholic 3.4%, Muslim 19.1%, non-religious 1.30%, others (Protestant, Buddhist) 4.1% (2011 est.).

Urban population, 66.8%

Human Development Index (HDI), 0.814 (UN-2018) (50th in the world).

Political system, parliamentary republic


Birth rate, 10 ‰

Mortality rate, 9.7 ‰

Vegetative growth, 0.03%

Life expectancy at birth: men, 74.1 years; women, 78.9 years (2016).


Agriculture: cereals, potatoes, tobacco, olives, fruits (grapes, figs).

Livestock: sheep, cattle, swine.

Forestry: coniferous

Mining: bauxite, crude steel, gravel, lignite, copper, zinc, lead

Industry: steel, food, production of consumer goods, tourism.

GDP per capita, $ 18,765 (2017)

Sectoral distribution of GDP:

· Agriculture, 7.5%

· Industry, 15.9%

· Services, 76.6% (2016 est.)

Foreign trade:

· Exports: metals, food products, wood, vehicles.

429 million dollars

· Imports: electrical and food products, vehicles, metals, oil.

2,620 million dollars (2016)

HISTORY (XX-XXI centuries)

1905: Prince Nicolás convened a national assembly and approved a liberal constitution.

1910: The prince assumed the title of king.

1912: Montenegro was part of the Balkan Alliance with Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece, and declared war on Turkey in the first Balkan War.

1914: He maintained his old alliance with Serbia and declared war on Austria-Hungary and Germany.

1915: The country was invaded by Germans and Austrians.

1918: The pro-unification movement with Serbia crystallized after the armistice, with the dismissal of King Nicolás I by the National Congress of Podgorica.

1919: Montenegro was incorporated into the new triune Kingdom and one of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

1921: King Nicholas I died.

1922: The Council of Ambassadors recognized the disappearance of Montenegro as an independent state.

1929: The Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes officially received the name of Yugoslavia.

1940-44: The Montenegrin territory was occupied by Mussolini’s troops.

1945: After the guerrilla resistance, the Yugoslav national liberation army left the territory free of invaders.

1948: Montenegro became one of the federated republics of socialist Yugoslavia.

1988-90: Various manifestations underlined both the nationalist upheaval and the need for democratic reforms.

1989: The mortal remains of King Nicholas I, who were buried in Italy, were transferred to Montenegro.

1992: The people chose in referendum to constitute with Serbia a new Yugoslavia of only two federated republics; the Muslim and Albanian minorities abstained. The capital Titograd was renamed Podgorica.

1993: A group of Montenegrin nationalists restored the national Orthodox Church and elected Antonije Avramovic as their new spiritual leader.

1995: Patriarch Pavle excommunicated A. Avramovic, an act considered by the Montenegrins as an authentic national affront.

1997: In the elections for the presidency of the federated republic, Milo Djukanović prevailed, nothing in favor of maintaining the ties with Serbia.

1999: Massive flow of refugees to Montenegro. The unity of the market with Serbia was broken, as the German mark became the legal tender in Montenegro.

2002: Montenegro introduced the euro as currency. The government collapsed as a result of different opinions about the union of Serbia and Montenegro. General elections were held and the parties in favor of independence won, so Milo Djukanović resigned as president to become prime minister.

2003: The Serbian parliament and the Montenegrin approved the union of Serbia and Montenegro. Filip Vujanović became the new president after winning the presidential elections.

2006: Montenegro held a referendum, in which the «yes» to independence won. As a result, Montenegro declared itself independent, and Serbia responded by declaring itself the successor state of the Union of Serbia and Montenegro. In this way, Montenegro became the 192nd member of the UN. The government coalition won the elections again and Željko Šturanović became prime minister.

2007: Admitted to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. In addition, Montenegro adopted a new constitution and initiated the first steps for its entry into the European Union.

2008: Milo Djukanović returned as prime minister after Željko Šturanović resigned due to health problems. Filip Vujanović wins the presidential elections for the second time. Months later, Montenegro recognized the independence of Kosovo.

2009: The Coalition for a European Montenegro won the parliamentary elections. And the country became part of the Schengen Treaty.

2010: Prime Minister Milo Djukanović resigned and was replaced by Igor Lukšić.

2013: Filip Vujanović was re-elected president.

2016: The government accused Russian-backed forces of trying to carry out a coup before the parliamentary elections, in which the Democratic Socialist Party seized power.

2017: Montenegro joined NATO, renouncing its traditional alliance with Russia.

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