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Surface, 324,220 km²

Population, 5,295,619 h (2018)

Capital, Oslo

Languages: Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk), Saami or Lapon (official), Finnish.

Ethnic composition: Norwegian 86.01% (of which 7.64% are Saami or Lapps), other groups 13.99%.

Religions: Protestant (Lutheran) 71.5%, Catholic 7.8%, Muslim 2.8%, other 5.9%, not specified 7.5% (est. 2017).

Literacy rate, 100%

Human Development Index (HDI), 0.953 (UN-2018) (1st in the world).

Political system, constitutional monarchy

Oslo City Hall, capital of Norway.


Birth rate, 12.2 ‰

Mortality rate, 8.1 ‰

Vegetative growth, 0.41%

Life expectancy at birth: men, 79.8 years; women, 84 years (est. 2018).


Agriculture: cereals (barley and wheat), potatoes, fodder plants, fruit and vegetable products.

Livestock: sheep, cattle, pigs, reindeer.

Fishing: cod, mackerel, herring, coal.

Forestry: conifers (firs, pines, larches).

Mining: oil, natural gas, coal, copper, molybdenum, titanium, zinc, iron.

Industry: electrochemical, electrometallurgical, naval, oil, wood, canning, food.

GDP per capita, 71,800 (est. 2017)

GDP sector distribution:

· Agriculture, 2.4%

Industry, 31.1%

· Services, 66.5%

Foreign trade:

· Exports: oil and its derivatives, gas, fish, machinery, ships.

92.8 billion dollars

· Imports: transport equipment, special purpose ships, computers, packaged medicines, chemical and food products.

$ 75.6 billion (2016)

HISTORY (XX-XXI centuries)

1905: The union with Sweden was dissolved. Norway achieved independence under the reign of Haakon VII.

1907: Norway became the first European country to grant women the right to vote in parliamentary elections.

1910-30: Development of the hydroelectric power industry; Long period of liberal government.

1935: First socialist cabinet, supported by the agraristas.

1940-45: German occupation and government in exile.

1945-65: Labor governments introduced economic plans and permanent price control.

1949: Norway became a founding member of NATO.

1952: Founding member of the Nordic Council.

1957: Olav V succeeded his father King Haakon VII.

1960: Member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA).

1972: The national referendum rejected the project of accession to the European Economic Community.

1975: Norway begins North Sea oil exports.

1981: Gro Harlem Brundtland (Labor) became the first woman as Prime Minister of Norway.

1982: Kare Willoch formed the first conservative government since 1928.

1986: Economic recession as a result of the fall in the price of oil; Willoch resigns, and Brundtland agrees to form a government again.

1991: Olav V dies, succeeding his son Harald V.

1994: New referendum rejecting the agreement with the European Union.

1996: Brundtland decided to leave the government headquarters, succeeding Thorbjoern Jagland.

1997: Jagland lost the necessary majority in the general elections; Kjell Magne Bondevik became prime minister.

1998: The Government of Bondevik reformulated its program to attract centrist support: it reaffirmed itself in the rejection of European integration, began a policy to boost regional development and announced special legislative measures.

2000: The government lost a question of confidence in Parliament and Bondevik was forced to resign, succeeding Labor leader Jens Stoltenberg. The king inaugurated the longest road tunnel in the world of 24.5 km, in the Lærdal valley.

2001: There are numerous protests in Oslo due to the murder of a teenager of African ethnicity, committed by a group of three young neo-Nazis. Norway also lifted the ban on exporting whale meat. Months later the Labor leader loses the elections, in which the coalition of conservatives, the Christian party and the liberals form a coalition.

2005: The ruling coalition loses in the general elections, in favor of the center-left coalition led by the Labor Party.

2007: An amendment to the Constitution is produced to eliminate the bicameral division of parliament.

2008: Homosexual marriage is approved in a law that amends previous marriage laws, modifying them to gender neutral.

2011: The extremist Anders Behring Breivik carries out a bomb attack and a mass shooting, in which more than 70 people are killed. This is considered the largest massacre in modern Norwegian history. Breivik was sentenced to 21 years in prison.

2013: The center-right coalition led by the Conservative Party wins the parliamentary elections.

2016: The Lutheran church adopts a new liturgy whereby gay couples are allowed to celebrate their marriage in the church.

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