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Surface, 88,361 km²
Population, 7,004,444 h (2018)
Capital, Beograd (Belgrade)
Languages: Serbian or Serbo-Croatian (official), Albanian, Hungarian.
Ethnic composition: Serbs 83.3%, Hungarians 3.5%, Gypsies 2.05%, Croatians 0.8%, Slovaks 0.7%, Montenegrins 0.5%, other groups (Muslims, Romanians, Macedonians, Bulgarians) 9.15% (est. 2011).
Religions: Orthodox Serbian 84.6%, Catholic 4.97%, Muslim 3.10%, Protestant 0.99%, others (mainly non-religious) 6.35% (Est. 2011).
Literacy rate, 98.8%
Human Development Index (HDI), 0.787 (UN-2018) (67th in the world).
Political system, parliamentary republic.
Perspective of the right bank of the Save in the capital of Yugoslavia, Beograd / Belgrade.
Birth rate, 9 ‰
Mortality rate, 13.6 ‰
Vegetative growth, -0.46%
Life expectancy at birth: men 72.7 years; women 78.8 years (est. 2017).
Agriculture: cereals, vegetables, sugar beets, sunflowers, tobacco, grapes, fruits (plums, apples, peaches, pears, raspberries).
Livestock: swine, poultry, sheep.
Mining: coal, lignite, crude oil and natural gas.
Industry: textile, food, wood, paper, oil refining, metallurgical, transportation equipment, mechanics.
GDP per capita, $ 15,090 (2017)
Sectoral distribution of GDP:
Services, 49.1% (est. 2017)
Exports: electronic and metallurgical products, automobiles, tobacco, textile and food products.
15,400 million dollars
Imports: electronic products, petroleum, transport material, chemical and textile products, metals.
18,300 million dollars (2016)
HISTORY (XX-XXI centuries)
1903: A group of officers burst into the palace killing King Alexander and the Queen, weeks later Prince Peter Karageorgević was proclaimed king.
1908: The feeling of unifying in an empire Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro and other countries in which there was ethnic Serbian population was sharpened.
1912: By joining forces against Turkey, the four Balkan states, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia, it played an important role in the victorious Balkan Wars.
1913: By the Treaty of London, which ended the first Balkan War, each of the Balkan states received a share of the Turkish possessions in Europe. By the Treaty of Bucharest, Serbia received a large sector of Macedonia and the territory located east of Kosovo.
1914: The crown prince of Austria-Hungary, Francisco Fernando, was assassinated in Sarajevo, accused the Serbian government that the murder had been planned from Belgrade, broke diplomatic relations and declared war. Austria bombed Belgrade, but soon after it had to leave the Serbian territory.
1915: The Austro-German forces attacked Serbia and occupied Belgrade, months after they had consummated the conquest of Serbia.
1916: The intervention of France, England, Italy and Greece helped the reconquest of Serbia.
1918: The union of the southern Slavs in a kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was recognized by the treaties of Saint Germain and Trianon; the new state that was called Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, was constituted with Pedro I like king.
1921: Prince Alexander ascended to the throne, on the death of his father. The Vidovdan centralist constitution came into force, without the approval of the Croats.
1928: The leader of the Croatian Agrarian Party, Stefan Raditch, was assassinated by a Serbian deputy. King Alexander I dissolved the Parliament, established the dictatorship and abolished the Vidovdan Constitution.
1929: An even more centralist policy was adopted and the name of the state was changed to that of Yugoslavia.
1934: Alexander I was assassinated in Marseilles, by Croatian extremists; a council of regency was formed, presided over by Prince Pablo, before the minority of Pedro II.
1939: The new state was invaded by Germany and turned Serbia into a state subject to direct tutelage.
1941: Thousands of Serbs were exterminated in Croatia by the Nazis and their collaborators, the Ustashi, in the Jasenovać concentration camp. The king and the government went into exile in London.
1945: Serbia was integrated into the Socialist Republic of Yugoslavia, proclaimed by Tito and the Communists.
1989: The broad autonomy that Tito’s Yugoslavia had recognized Kosovo was abolished by Serbia.
1990: Slobodan Milošević was elected sole president of Serbia.
1991: When proclaimed its independence Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, the federated republic of Serbia constituted with the one of Montenegro a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, not recognized internationally until 1,995.
1992: The UN decreed the trade and oil embargo against Serbia. S. Milošević was reelected in office.
1994: Belgrade broke its economic and political relations with the proclaimed Serbian Republic of Bosnia, rejecting the plan of peace of the great powers.
1995: The Serbian president also negotiated on behalf of the Bosnian Serbs the Dayton (United States) agreement for peace in Bosnia and got the UN to lift the sanctions.
1996: Belgrade restored relations with Bosnia-Herzegovina. Milošević and his party won the elections to the Serbian parliament, but these were contested by the opposition, which considered them fraudulent.
1997: Milošević became federal president of the birrepublicana Yugoslavia, position for which was chosen by the Federal Assembly.
1998: UNHCR, the UN body for refugees, estimated at 300,000 Albanians in Kosovo forced to leave their homes.
1999: Kosovo war: NATO air strikes destroyed important part of the industrial park and communications infrastructure in Serbia; the violent expulsion of Kosovo Albanians reached massive proportions, reaching some 900,000 refugees in Albania, Macedonia and Montenegro; Yugoslavia accepted a peace plan that provided for the total withdrawal of its troops from Kosovo and the installation of 50,000 NATO troops there.
2000: In the elections for the Yugoslav federal presidency, now by universal suffrage, the opposition candidate Vojislav Kostunica triumphed; Milošević was forced to resign before an authentic popular revolt in Belgrade.
2001: The extradition of Milošević was authorized to be tried in The Hague Tribunal for war crimes.
2003: The constitutional charter was approved, which definitively ended Yugoslavia, which is now called the Union of Serbia and Montenegro.
2004: After the elections, Vojislav Koštunica became Prime Minister, in charge of a center-right coalition government. There were major clashes between Serbs and Albanians in Kosovo, and NATO sent reinforcements to reduce the conflict. Boris Tadić became the new president after winning the presidential election.
2006: Milošević was found dead in his cell during his trial for war crimes. The independence of Montenegro was approved in a referendum. Likewise, a constitutional reform was approved in Serbia, in which Kosovo is declared as an integral part of Serbia.
2008: Boris Tadić was again elected president, reinforcing Serbia’s pro-European Union policies. Kosovo declared itself independent, even though Serbia did not accept its legality. Mirko Cvetković became Prime Minister thanks to the coalition of the Democratic Party and the Socialist Party.
2009: Serbia became part of the Schengen Treaty.
2010: Parliament officially apologized for the massacre of thousands of Muslims in Srebrenica.
2011: Serbia and Kosovo resumed negotiations for the first time since the declaration of independence. The European Commission declared that Serbia can only be part of the European Union if it normalizes its situation with Kosovo.
2013: Serbia resumed negotiations with Kosovo, with the participation of the European Union as mediator. The Serbian parliament supported the rights of the Serbian minority in Kosovo, which was a recognition of the territorial sovereignty of Kosovo.
2014: The Progressive Party won the parliamentary elections and Aleksandar Vučić became Prime Minister, with the support of the same coalition.
2015: Serbia carried out the first arrests of people accused of participating in the Srebrenica massacre.
2017: Aleksandar Vučić won the presidential elections with the Progressive Party. Ana Brnabić became Prime Minister.